Very high-protein and low-carbohydrate enteral nutrition formula and plasma glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover trial [entry-title]

Abstract

Objectives:

Standard enteral nutrition (EN) formulas can worsen hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that altering the proportion of macronutrients in a formula; increasing protein while decreasing carbohydrate concentrations would improve glycemic response. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that an EN formula containing a very high concentration of protein (in the form of whey peptides) and low concentration of carbohydrate provide better control of postprandial blood glucose relative to a very high-protein/higher-carbohydrate formula.

Methods:

This was a randomized crossover clinical trial of 12 ambulatory adult subjects with type 2 diabetes. The primary outcome was glycemic response following a bolus of isocaloric amounts of two EN formulas; the secondary outcome was insulin response. Subjects were randomized to the experimental or the control formula, on two separate days, 5-7 days apart.

Results:

Mean blood glucose concentrations at 10-180 min post-infusion and mean area under the curve for glucose over 240 min post-infusion were significantly lower with the experimental formula than with the control formula (71.99 ± 595.18 and 452.62 ± 351.38, respectively; p = 0.025). There were no significant differences in the mean insulin concentrations over time, insulinogenic indices, and first-phase insulin measurements.

CONCLUSIONS:
An EN formula containing high-protein and low-carbohydrate loads can significantly improve glucose control in subjects with type 2 diabetes in ambulatory settings as evidenced by observed improved glucose control without significant difference in insulin response.

Huhmann MB, Yamamoto S, Neutel JM, Cohen SS, Ochoa Gautier JB. Very high-protein and low-carbohydrate enteral nutrition formula and plasma glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover trial. Nutr Diabetes. 2018 Aug 30;8(1):45.Cohen SS, Skovbo S, Vestergaard H, Kristensen T, Møller M, Bindslev-Jensen C, Fryzek JP, Broesby-Olsen S. Epidemiology of systemic mastocytosis in Denmark. Br J Haematol. 2014 Apr 25.