Ruzin A, Pastula ST, Levin-Sparenberg E, Jiang X, Fryzek J, Tovchigrechko A, Lu B, Qi Y, Liu H, Jin H, Yu L, Hackett J, Villafana T, Esser MT. Characterization of circulating RSV strains among subjects in the OUTSMART-RSV surveillance program during the 2016-17 winter viral season in the United States. PLoS One. 2018 Jul 24;13(7):e0200319.
Le HQ, Tomenson JA, Warheit DB, Fryzek JP, Golden AP, Ellis ED. A Review and Meta-Analysis of Occupational Titanium Dioxide Exposure and Lung Cancer Mortality. J Occup Environ Med. 2018 Jul;60(7):e356-e367.
Beebe-Dimmer JL, Ruterbusch JJ, Bylsma LC, Gillezeau C, Fryzek J, Schultz NM, Flanders SC, Barlev A, Heath E, Quek RGW. Patterns of Bicalutamide Use in Prostate Cancer Treatment: A U.S. Real-World Analysis Using the SEER-Medicare Database. Adv Ther. 2018 Jun 26.
To conduct meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to estimate the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) on coronary heart disease (CHD), and to conduct meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies to estimate the association between EPA+DHA intake and CHD risk.
A systematic literature search of Ovid/Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from January 1, 1947, to November 2, 2015, was conducted; 18 RCTs and 16 prospective cohort studies examining EPA+DHA from foods or supplements and CHD, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, coronary death, and angina, were identified. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) and 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was examined in subgroup and sensitivity analyses and by meta-regression. Dose-response was evaluated in stratified dose or intake analyses. Publication bias assessments were performed.
Among RCTs, there was a nonstatistically significant reduction in CHD risk with EPA+DHA provision (SRRE=0.94; 95% CI, 0.85-1.05). Subgroup analyses of data from RCTs indicated a statistically significant CHD risk reduction with EPA+DHA provision among higher-risk populations, including participants with elevated triglyceride levels (SRRE=0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.98) and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (SRRE=0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.98). Meta-analysis of data from prospective cohort studies resulted in a statistically significant SRRE of 0.82 (95% […]
The potential relationship between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the subject of scientific debate. Given the high degree of resulting uncertainty, our objective was to update the state of the science by conducting a systematic quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic literature. Specifically, we updated and expanded our previous meta-analysis by integrating data from new prospective cohort studies and conducting a broader evaluation of the relative risk estimates by specific intake categories. Data from 27 independent prospective cohort studies were meta-analyzed using random-effects models, and sources of potential heterogeneity were examined through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation of potential dose-response patterns was conducted. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, a weakly elevated summary relative risk was observed (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.19); however, statistically significant heterogeneity was present. In general, summary associations were attenuated (closer to the null and less heterogeneous) in models that isolated fresh red meat (from processed meat), adjusted for more relevant factors, analyzed women only, and were conducted in countries outside of the United States. Furthermore, no clear patterns of dose-response were apparent. In conclusion, the state of the epidemiologic science on red meat consumption and CRC is best described […]
Arteriovenous fistulae are the currently recommended gold standard vascular access modality for haemodialysis because of their prolonged patency, improved durability, and low risk of infection for those that mature. However, notable disadvantages are observed in terms of protracted maturation time, associated high rates of catheter use, and substantial abandonment rates. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the outcomes of fistula patency, infection, maturation, and abandonment published in the scientific literature.
This was a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies evaluating fistula outcomes. Literature searches were conducted in multiple databases to identify observational and interventional studies of mean fistula patency rates at 1 year, infection risk, maturation time, and abandonment. Digitisation software was used to simulate individual patient level data from Kaplan-Meier survival plots.
Over 8000 studies were reviewed, and from these, 318 studies were included comprising 62,712 accesses. For fistulas the primary unassisted, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates at one year were 64%, 73% and 79% respectively, however not all fistulas reported as patent could be confirmed as being clinically useful for dialysis (i.e. functional patency). For fistulas that were reported as mature, mean time to maturation was 3.5 months, however only 26% of created fistulas were reported […]
We analyzed the mesothelioma mortality in cohorts of workers exposed to crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile to estimate asbestos fiber potency for mesothelioma, using the method of Hodgson and Darnton (2000). We relied on the original 17 cohort studies in their analysis, along with 3 updates of those studies and 3 new asbestos cohort studies published since 2000. We extended the analyses to examine the mesothelioma potency of tremolite in vermiculite from Libby, Montana, and for non-asbestiform elongate mineral particles (EMPs) in taconite iron ore, talc, and South Dakota gold mining. Mesothelioma potency (RMeso) was calculated as the percent of all expected deaths that were due to mesothelioma per fiber/cc-year of exposure. The RMeso was 0.0012 for chrysotile, 0.099 for amosite, and 0.451 for crocidolite: thus, the relative potency of chrysotile:amosite:crocidolite was 1:83:376, which was not appreciably different from the estimates by Hodgson and Darnton in 2000. The RMeso for taconite mining fibers was 0.069 which was slightly greater than that for amosite. The RMeso for Libby fibers was 0.028 which was greater than that for chrysotile and less than that for amosite. Talc and gold mining EMPs were non-potent for mesothelioma. Although there are a number of methods for estimating fiber potency of […]
Standard enteral nutrition (EN) formulas can worsen hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that altering the proportion of macronutrients in a formula; increasing protein while decreasing carbohydrate concentrations would improve glycemic response. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that an EN formula containing a very high concentration of protein (in the form of whey peptides) and low concentration of carbohydrate provide better control of postprandial blood glucose relative to a very high-protein/higher-carbohydrate formula.
This was a randomized crossover clinical trial of 12 ambulatory adult subjects with type 2 diabetes. The primary outcome was glycemic response following a bolus of isocaloric amounts of two EN formulas; the secondary outcome was insulin response. Subjects were randomized to the experimental or the control formula, on two separate days, 5-7 days apart.
Mean blood glucose concentrations at 10-180 min post-infusion and mean area under the curve for glucose over 240 min post-infusion were significantly lower with the experimental formula than with the control formula (71.99 ± 595.18 and 452.62 ± 351.38, respectively; p = 0.025). There were no significant differences in the mean insulin concentrations over time, insulinogenic indices, and first-phase insulin measurements.
An EN formula containing high-protein and low-carbohydrate loads can significantly improve glucose control in subjects with type 2 diabetes in […]
There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of physical activity with regard to mortality risk or the harms associated with sedentary behavior in black adults, so we examined the relationships between these health behaviors and cause-specific mortality in a prospective study that had a large proportion of black adults. Participants (40-79 years of age) enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 63,308) were prospectively followed over 6.4 years, and 3,613 and 1,394 deaths occurred in blacks and whites, respectively. Black adults who reported the highest overall physical activity level (≥32.3 metabolic equivalent-hours/day vs.12 hours/day vs.
Matthews CE, Cohen SS, Fowke JH, Han X, Xiao Q, Buchowski MS, Hargreaves MK, Signorello LB, Blot WJ. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Black and White Adults in the Southern Community Cohort Study.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing an integrated assessment of non-cancer and cancer risk assessment of inorganic arsenic (iAs). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with iAs exposure has been examined in a number of studies and provides a basis for evaluating a reference dose (RfD) for assessing potential non-cancer health risks of arsenic exposure. In this systematic review of low-level iAs exposure (i.e., <100-150μg/L arsenic water concentration) and CVD in human populations, 13 cohort and case-control studies from the United States, Taiwan, Bangladesh, and China were identified and critically examined for evidence for derivation of a RfD. Eight cross-sectional and ecological studies from the United States were also examined for additional information. Prospective cohort data from Bangladesh provided the strongest evidence for determining the point of departure in establishing a candidate RfD based on a combined endpoint of mortality from “ischemic heart disease and other heart diseases.” This study as well as the overall literature supported a no-observed-adverse-effect level of 100μg/L for arsenic in water, which was equivalent to an iAs dose of 0.009mg/kg-day (based on population-specific water consumption rates and dietary iAs intake). The study population was likely sensitive to arsenic toxicity because of nutritional deficiencies affecting arsenic methylation and one-carbon […]