The epidemiology of cancer is the study of the factors affecting cancer, as a way to infer possible trends and causes. The study of cancer epidemiology uses epidemiological methods to find the cause of cancer and to identify and develop improved treatments.
Ruzin A, Pastula ST, Levin-Sparenberg E, Jiang X, Fryzek J, Tovchigrechko A, Lu B, Qi Y, Liu H, Jin H, Yu L, Hackett J, Villafana T, Esser MT. Characterization of circulating RSV strains among subjects in the OUTSMART-RSV surveillance program during the 2016-17 winter viral season in the United States. PLoS One. 2018 Jul 24;13(7):e0200319.
Le HQ, Tomenson JA, Warheit DB, Fryzek JP, Golden AP, Ellis ED. A Review and Meta-Analysis of Occupational Titanium Dioxide Exposure and Lung Cancer Mortality. J Occup Environ Med. 2018 Jul;60(7):e356-e367.
Beebe-Dimmer JL, Ruterbusch JJ, Bylsma LC, Gillezeau C, Fryzek J, Schultz NM, Flanders SC, Barlev A, Heath E, Quek RGW. Patterns of Bicalutamide Use in Prostate Cancer Treatment: A U.S. Real-World Analysis Using the SEER-Medicare Database. Adv Ther. 2018 Jun 26.
The potential relationship between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the subject of scientific debate. Given the high degree of resulting uncertainty, our objective was to update the state of the science by conducting a systematic quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic literature. Specifically, we updated and expanded our previous meta-analysis by integrating data from new prospective cohort studies and conducting a broader evaluation of the relative risk estimates by specific intake categories. Data from 27 independent prospective cohort studies were meta-analyzed using random-effects models, and sources of potential heterogeneity were examined through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation of potential dose-response patterns was conducted. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, a weakly elevated summary relative risk was observed (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.19); however, statistically significant heterogeneity was present. In general, summary associations were attenuated (closer to the null and less heterogeneous) in models that isolated fresh red meat (from processed meat), adjusted for more relevant factors, analyzed women only, and were conducted in countries outside of the United States. Furthermore, no clear patterns of dose-response were apparent. In conclusion, the state of the epidemiologic science on red meat consumption and CRC is best described […]
The objective of this study was to conduct an indirect treatment comparison between cabazitaxel, abiraterone and enzalutamide to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of cabazitaxel relative to comparators in the treatment of patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer who progress on docetaxel-based therapies.
A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the network meta-analysis of cabazitaxel, abiraterone and enzalutamide. Due to a lack of head-to-head trials, studies with a comparator arm of best supportive care were included in the analysis. Overall survival, progression-free survival, and adverse events were compared within both Bayesian and Frequentist frameworks. The ratios for survival outcomes were estimated using hazard ratios (HR), and the ratios for adverse events between groups were estimated using odds ratios (ORs); uncertainty was reported as 95% confidence (Frequentist) and credible (Baysesian) Intervals.
Three of thirteen trials identified for abstraction were relevant for analyses. Median overall survival was not statistically significantly different for abiraterone (HR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.83-1.28) or enzalutamide (HR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.69-1.11) when compared to cabazitaxel in the Bayesian analysis. Anaemia (OR = 3.71; 95% CI = 1.01-10.44), diarrhoea (OR = 16.60; 95% CI = 1.41-75.31) and haematuria (OR = 3.88; 95% […]
There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of physical activity with regard to mortality risk or the harms associated with sedentary behavior in black adults, so we examined the relationships between these health behaviors and cause-specific mortality in a prospective study that had a large proportion of black adults. Participants (40-79 years of age) enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 63,308) were prospectively followed over 6.4 years, and 3,613 and 1,394 deaths occurred in blacks and whites, respectively. Black adults who reported the highest overall physical activity level (≥32.3 metabolic equivalent-hours/day vs.12 hours/day vs.
Matthews CE, Cohen SS, Fowke JH, Han X, Xiao Q, Buchowski MS, Hargreaves MK, Signorello LB, Blot WJ. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Black and White Adults in the Southern Community Cohort Study.
Concern has been raised that the occurrence of cancer may be increased in neighbourhoods around a former manufactured gas plant in Champaign, Illinois, USA. Thus, we compared historical rates of cancer in this area to comparison communities as well as with nationally standardised rates.
Retrospective population-based community cancer assessment during 1990-2010. Champaign County, Illinois, USA, and zip codes encompassing the location of the former manufactured gas plant to counties that were similar demographically. Residents of the counties and zip codes studied between 1990 and 2010. The relative risk (RR) and 95% CI were used to compare cancer incidence and mortality in the areas near the gas compression site to the comparison counties. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare rates in the areas near the gas compression site to expected rates based on overall US cancer rates.
Total cancer mortality (RR=0.91, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.94) and incidence (RR=0.95, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.97) were reduced significantly in Champaign County versus the comparison counties. Similarly, a reduced rate of total cancer was observed in analyses by zip code (proximal to the former gas plant) when compared with either similar counties (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.93) or national standardised rates of […]
The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of B-cell and T-cell neoplasms that arise primarily in the lymph nodes. NHL incidence rates in the US doubled between about 1970 and 1990, and stabilized during the 1990s. NHL accounts for approximately 3.4% of cancer deaths in the US. Although some of the observed patterns in NHL have been related to HIV/AIDS, these conditions cannot fully explain the magnitude of the changes; neither do changes in classification systems nor improved diagnostic capabilities. Studies of occupational and environmental exposures (e.g., pesticides, solvents) have produced no consistent pattern of significant positive associations. Inverse associations with ultraviolet radiation exposure and alcohol and fish intake, and positive associations with meat and saturated fat intake have been reported in several studies; additional studies are needed to confirm or refute these associations. Family history of NHL or other hematolympho-proliferative cancers and personal history of several autoimmune disorders are associated with increased risk of NHL, but are not likely to account for a large proportion of cases. HIV and other infectious agents, such as human herpesvirus 8 and Epstein-Barr, appear to be associated with differing types of NHL, such as some B-cell lymphomas. Future epidemiologic studies should evaluate […]