Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the use of and the effects of drugs in large numbers of people. To accomplish this study, pharmacoepidemiology borrows from both pharmacology and epidemiology.
Through collaborations with the University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Health Management and Policy, as well as the College of Pharmacy, we are pleased to also offer capabilities in health economics, cost effectiveness, and medication adherence.
The objective of this study was to conduct an indirect treatment comparison between cabazitaxel, abiraterone and enzalutamide to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of cabazitaxel relative to comparators in the treatment of patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer who progress on docetaxel-based therapies.
A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the network meta-analysis of cabazitaxel, abiraterone and enzalutamide. Due to a lack of head-to-head trials, studies with a comparator arm of best supportive care were included in the analysis. Overall survival, progression-free survival, and adverse events were compared within both Bayesian and Frequentist frameworks. The ratios for survival outcomes were estimated using hazard ratios (HR), and the ratios for adverse events between groups were estimated using odds ratios (ORs); uncertainty was reported as 95% confidence (Frequentist) and credible (Baysesian) Intervals.
Three of thirteen trials identified for abstraction were relevant for analyses. Median overall survival was not statistically significantly different for abiraterone (HR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.83-1.28) or enzalutamide (HR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.69-1.11) when compared to cabazitaxel in the Bayesian analysis. Anaemia (OR = 3.71; 95% CI = 1.01-10.44), diarrhoea (OR = 16.60; 95% CI = 1.41-75.31) and haematuria (OR = 3.88; 95% […]
Arteriovenous fistulae are the currently recommended gold standard vascular access modality for haemodialysis because of their prolonged patency, improved durability, and low risk of infection for those that mature. However, notable disadvantages are observed in terms of protracted maturation time, associated high rates of catheter use, and substantial abandonment rates. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the outcomes of fistula patency, infection, maturation, and abandonment published in the scientific literature.
This was a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies evaluating fistula outcomes. Literature searches were conducted in multiple databases to identify observational and interventional studies of mean fistula patency rates at 1 year, infection risk, maturation time, and abandonment. Digitisation software was used to simulate individual patient level data from Kaplan-Meier survival plots.
Over 8000 studies were reviewed, and from these, 318 studies were included comprising 62,712 accesses. For fistulas the primary unassisted, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates at one year were 64%, 73% and 79% respectively, however not all fistulas reported as patent could be confirmed as being clinically useful for dialysis (i.e. functional patency). For fistulas that were reported as mature, mean time to maturation was 3.5 months, however only 26% of created fistulas were reported […]
The side-effects associated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) include weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. As cataracts have been linked to these metabolic abnormalities, an increased risk of cataract may be another adverse consequence of ADT use.
Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we estimated risk of cataract associated with ADT among 65,852 prostate-cancer patients. ADT treatment was defined as at least one dose of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or orchiectomy within 6 months after prostate cancer diagnosis. The outcome measure was a first claim of cataract diagnosis identified in Medicare claim files. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the effects of ADT treatment, controlling for confounders.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist use was associated with a modest increase in cataract incidence (HR 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.12). Orchiectomy was also associated with an increased risk of cataract among men with no history of cataract prior to prostate cancer diagnosis (HR 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.47).
In the first systematic investigation of the association between ADT and cataract, our results suggest an elevation in theincidence of cataract among ADT users. Further study, preferably prospective in design, is needed to provide additional evidence to support or refute these findings.
Beebe-Dimmer J, Morgenstern H, Cetin K, Yee C, Bartoces M, Shahinian V, Fryzek J, Acquavella J, Schwartz KA. Androgen deprivation therapy […]
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) frequently complicates cancer. Data on tumour-specific VTE predictors are limited, but may inform strategies to prevent thrombosis.
We computed incidence rates (IRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for VTE hospitalisation in a cohort of cancer patients (n=57,591) and in a comparison general-population cohort (n=287,476) in Denmark. The subjects entered the study in 1997-2005, and the follow-up continued through 2006. Using Cox proportional-hazards regression, we estimated relative risks (RRs) for VTE predictors, while adjusting for comorbidity.
Throughout the follow-up, VTE IR was higher among the cancer patients (IR=8.0, 95% CI=7.6-8.5) than the general population (IR=4.7, 95% CI=4.3-5.1), particularly in the first year after cancer diagnosis (IR=15.0, 95% CI=13.8-16.2, vs IR=8.6, 95% CI=7.6-9.9). Incidence rates of VTE were highest in patients with pancreas (IR=40.9, 95% CI=29.5-56.7), brain (IR=17.7, 95% CI=11.3-27.8) or liver (IR=20.4, 95% CI=9.2-45.3) tumours, multiple myeloma (IR=22.6, 95% CI=15.4-33.2) and among patients with advanced-stage cancers (IR=27.7, 95% CI=24.0-32.0) or those who received chemotherapy or no/symptomatic treatment. The adjusted RR (aRR) for VTE was highest among patients with pancreas (aRR=16.3, 95% CI=8.1-32.6) or brain cancer (aRR=19.8 95% CI=7.1-55.2), multiple myeloma (aRR=46.1, 95% CI=13.1-162.0) and among patients receiving chemotherapy, either alone (aRR=18.5, 95% CI=11.9-28.7) or in combination treatments (aRR=16.2, 95% CI=12.0-21.7).